Mines around St Just, Cornwall

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St Just Mines, Cornwall Cape Cornwall Boscaswell United North Levant Botallack Boswedden St Just United Wheal Owles Crowns Geevor Levant Levant Spearne Consols Wheal Cock Wheal Edward Wheal Cunning Boscaswell Downs Pendeen Consols Pendeen Consols Praze Boscean Little Bounds Riblows Wheal Harmon Letcha Wheal Unity

St Just area has been mined for tin and copper for around 2000 years, however volume production started around 1820 and lasted till around 1930. The workings extended a mile out under the sea. Geevor mine at Pendeen was eventually the last to close in 1990. The geology of the area comprises slate (killas) and greenstone intruded by granite 280 million years ago. Granite caused the deposition of tin and copper ores in near-vertical fractures known as veins. These veins when mined were known as lodes. Over 150 named minerals have been found in the mines of the area, including Botallackite, a unique mineral discovered at Wheal Cock in 1865.
The small town of St. Just is all that evolved as an urban centre. Mining families carried on working the fields whose boundaries had been laid out hundreds of years previously. By the mis 16th century miners were working the alluvial tin deposits in the valleys to the north and south of the town, plus many of the coastal lode outcrops.

Census returns show the parish population of St Just increased from 2,779 in 1801 to 9,290 in 1861, with the greatest growth occurring between 1831 and 1841, when mine workers made up one third of the local population.The boom was short-lived, and the decline set in during the 1860's when most of the area's copper mines had closed and by 1900 the population had halved with miners and their families emigrating to get work.

The characteristic lodes in the St Just area strike more or less at right angles to the coast. They increase in richness as they run out under the sea, and become rapidly less productive inland. The mining district is therefore more or less confined to the coastal fringe. To the east, the lodes became less rich, and there although there were mines virually along the coast through Morvah and Zennor parishes towards St. Ives, they were much smaller and less profitable. Inland, mining only took place at Leswidden, a little to the east of St. Just and at Ding Dong, on the high moors to the east.

The relative remoteness of the area has meant that much of the mining archeology has been preserved. Many of the most significant mining sites here have been acquired by The National Trust . While Geevor was bought by the Cornwall County Council in 1991 following the closure of the mine, which preserved the existing machinery there.

Name of Mine Principal Shafts Chief Produce Notable Minerals
       
Balleswidden Mine   TIN Bismuth
Boscorlas Mine (Roscorla's Mine)      
Borlase Consols (Wheal Barges) Boscean TIN  
Boscaswell United Trease, Treweeks TIN & COPPER  
Boscean Mine (Lower Boscean Mine)      
East Boscean Mine      
Bosigran Consolidated   TIN  
East Bosorne      
Bosorne & Ballowal United   TIN  
Boswedden & Wheal Castle   TIN Beryl
Bosworlas Mine      
Bosworthen      
Botallack Mines (including Carnyorth and Wheal Cock ) Crowns Engine, Boscawen Diagonal, Narrow, Allen's, Nineveh, Wheal Hazard and Wheal Cock Engine shafts TIN & COPPER

Bismuth, Silver, Garnet & Opal
Caer Bran Mine      
Cape Cornwall Mine
  TIN Garnet
Carn Galver   TIN  
Carnyorth Mine      
Croft an Vor Mine      
Crowns Mine      
Geevor Mine Wheal Carne, Wethered, Victory, Wheal Mexico & Pig shafts TIN & COPPER  
Goldings Mine      
Hobboys Mine      
Kelynack Mine      
Kendijack      
Letcha      
Levant Mine Shafts from North to South - Goldsworthy's, Zawn Brinny, Phillip's, Angwin's, Batten's, Skip & Engine, Boscregan, Daubuz's (Man Engine), Trezise's, Higher Bal (Guide) and Unity TIN & COPPER Bismuth & Silver
East Levant Mine      
Higher Levant Mine      
North Levant      
Little Bounds      
Morvah Hill Mine (Garden Mine)      
Parknoweth Mine      
Pendeen Consols   COPPER & TIN  
Praze      
Riblows      
St Just Amalgamated Mines (incl. Wheal Penzance)      
St Just Consols (South Levant Mine)      
St. Just United Bailey's TIN  
Spearne Moor   TIN & COPPER Arsenic
Spearne Consols   TIN  
Great Trevegean Mine      
Wheal August      
Wheal Aview (Wheal Avu)      
Wheal Bal      
Wheal Bellan   TIN Amethyst
Wheal Boys      
Wheal Bull      
Wheal Call (Wheal Coal)      
Wheal Castle      
Wheal Cock      
Wheal Cunning      
Wheal Diamond     Rock Crystal
Wheal Drea      
Wheal Edward      
Wheal Grouse      
Wheal Hearle   COPPER & TIN  
Wheal Hermon (Wheal St Just)      
Wheal Oak      
Wheal Owles & Wheal Edward Cargodna, Wheal Edward Incline & Engine shaft TIN & COPPER  
Wheal Powle      
Wheal Stennack     Jasper
Wheal Unity      
Wheal Zandras      
Wherry Mine   TIN
 

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