The Duke of Cornwall has his own web site, paid out of the Communications Grant he gets from the government. You can get the official spin on what he is doing, has done, and wants to do.
The UK Government site information on Prince Charles is less expansive. It tells you that he was born at Buckingham Palace on 14 November 1948, and was christened Charles Philip Arthur George.
And automatically became Duke of Cornwall on the accession to the throne of his mother, under a charter of King Edward III dating back to 1337, which gave that title to the Sovereign's eldest son. He also became, in the Scottish Peerage, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick and Baron Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland.
The Prince was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester in 1958. In 1968, The Prince of Wales was installed as a Knight of the Garter. And was appointed a Knight of the Thistle in 1977. In June 2002 The Prince of Wales was appointed to the Order of Merit.
There is a long entry in Wikipedia. There I learnt that he would not have been born a Prince, had it not been for action by his grandfather King George VI. Under letters patent issued by the Prince's great grandfather, King George V, the title of a British prince and the style His Royal Highness was only available to the children and grandchildren in the male-line of the sovereign, and the eldest son of The Prince of Wales. But he was a female-line grandchild of the sovereign, that is a son of Princess Elizabeth. So under that ruling he would have taken his title from his father, the Duke of Edinburgh, and would have been styled by courtesy as Earl of Merioneth.
In an early example of "equal rights" the title of Prince and Princess, with the style HRH was granted to all the children of Princess Elizabeth by new letters patent issued by King George VI. Under this the children of the heiress presumptive had a royal and princely status not thought necessary for the children of King George VI's other daughter, Princess Margaret. Therefore from birth he was known as His Royal Highness Prince Charles of Edinburgh. There have been moves to cut down on the number of "princes and princesses", in terms of the numbers of generations that the title can devolve, outside the immediate succession.
Following a reportedly unhappy education at his father's old school, Gordonstoun, he left with 2 A levels to go to university at Trinity College, Cambridge where he studied Anthropology and Archaeology, and later History, earning a 2:2 (lower second class degree).
He had a number of romantic attachments, including a early liaison with Camilla Shand (later Camilla Parker-Bowles. As heir-apparent to the Throne, The Prince of Wales had to choose a bride who was of impeccable background, a virgin, and a Protestant. None of his early girlfriends appear to have satisfied all pre-requisites. And he eventually married Diana Spencer in 1981, and divorced after a much publicised spat in 1996.
They had two children, Prince William (now the 2nd in line to succeed to the throne, after his father) and Prince Harry.
In 1994 television interview he admitted that he had committed adultery "once it had become clear my marriage was over". And Camilla Parker-Bowles was referred to by Diana as the 3rd person in her marriage. After his divorce from Diana, Princess of Wales, The Prince of Wales's relationship with Camilla Parker Bowles eventually became open, with her becoming his unofficial consort. But Diana's death in 1997, Camilla's emergence in the public eye was stopped in its tracks, and had to be carefully spun by the Prince's advisers.
Eventually it was deemed appropriate for the Prince and Camilla to marry, and the Queen had to give her permission under the Royal Marriages Act. They married in 2005. Mrs Parker Bowles would be styled Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cornwall and that upon The Prince's accession to the throne, she would not be known as Queen Camilla but as Her Royal Highness The Princess Consort. This form of address is believed to be based on that used by Queen Victoria's husband Prince Albert, who was styled as Prince Consort. She would have been entitle to be called, and indeed is de-facto, the Princess of Wales, but the memory of Diana in that role was still too fresh for the royals to take the risk of offending anyone.
Duchy of Cornwall